1898 – U.S. annexation of Hawaii.
1930 – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author and creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, died.
1981 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan nominated Sandra Day O’Connor to the Supreme Court; she became its first woman member in September that year.
1994 – Northern Yemeni forces gained total control of their southern foes’ last bastion, Aden, crushing a bid to recreate an independent state.
1998 – Moshood Abiola, Nigeria’s most famous political detainee and the presumed 1993 election winner, died suddenly; his death sparked days of rioting.
1999 – In a huge defeat for the U.S. tobacco industry, a Florida jury found that smoking causes a number of diseases and that the industry hid the dangers from the public.
2004 – Swimmer Michael Phelps breaks his own world record in 400m long course individual medley.
2005 – Four suicide bombers killed 52 people on London transport system during morning rush hour.
2007 – Live Earth benefit concerts are held on seven continents simultaneously to raise environmental awareness.
2012 – Dozens killed in southern Russian floods.
2015 – Sakari Momoi is recognised as the world’s oldest man at 111 years of age.